2009 Conference- Pillar and Bulwark of TruthDeep in History

Peter, the Rock, the Keys, and the Chair – Steve Ray

Steve Ray |
July 29, 2014 No Comments

Biblical scholar and Holy Land pilgrimage leader Steve Ray delves into the Jewish roots of the papacy, namely “the keys”, “the rock”, and “the chair”. Ray, a former Baptist, draws from his trips to the Holy Land to bring to life the commissioning of Peter as the first pope using vivid historical and contextual highlights. 

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Study Questions:

-What’s the best way to study the Bible, according to Ray?

-What is the “Fifth Gospel”? Do you agree?

-How does the description of Caesarea Philippi help you better understand Matthew 16:13-20?

-What is the importance of the renaming of Peter? Were there things Ray pointed out that you had never considered before? 

-What are the keys, according to Scripture? (see Isaiah 22:22) How does Old Testament dynastic succession correspond with Apostolic Succession? Why does it matter what Peter and the Apostles thought as Jews when they heard Jesus speak of “the keys of the Kingdom”?

-Have you ever considered to what the “Chair of Moses” in Matthew 23:2 was referring? How did Ray clarify the Jewish understanding of the Chair of Moses? How does this help you understand the Catholic “Chair of Peter”?

-Have you ever felt the pressure of “being your own pope,” as Steve Ray describes? 

-How does the Holy Spirit speak infallibly through sinful men?


Mishna and Talmud: The Mishna is the name for the sixty-three tractates in which Rabbi Judah set down the Oral Law, in which Jewish law is systematically codified. The Talmud is a compilation of discussions and commentaries on the Mishna’s laws made by rabbis.

Steve Ray

Steve Ray is a popular Catholic author and host on television and radio. After being Protestants for 39 years and involved with various Fundamentalist and Evangelical Protestant churches, Steve Ray and his wife, Janet, converted to the Catholic Church on Pentecost Sunday, 1994. Steve’s first book, Crossing The Tiber: Evangelical Protestants Discover the Historic Church details his intellectual and spiritual journey into Catholicism. He has also written Upon This Rock: St. Peter and the Primacy of Rome in the Scriptures and Early Church, St. John’s Gospel: A Bible Study Guide and Commentary, A Papacy Learning Guide and The Catholic Faith for Beginners: A Study of the Creeds. Steve and his wife are certified guides to the Holy Land, lead pilgrimages throughout the Israel and other biblical lands, and have produced the Holy Land DVD series, The Footprints of God: The Story of Salvation from Abraham to Augustine. His website is www.CatholicConvert.com.